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Survey shows:  Swiss nuclear power plants don't know what they are doing!

How much radioactivity do the Swiss nuclear power plants produce?

Summary and print version for passing on (2 pages)... 
 

Author:
Wolfgang Rehfus

Date:
1.9.2011

Deutsche Version

 ●  Survey at Swiss nuclear power plants and Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI)

 ●  Result and conclusion
 

 ●  PS ...

 

Survey

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Not only in Japan, the «Climate Change by Radioactivity» is produced for a long time, but in Fukushima since 11.3.2011 it is released...

cf. UN-Resolution  «Climate Change by Radioactivity», SolarPeace.org, 7.8.2009

 

Following the nuclear disaster in Fukushima/Japan all Swiss nuclear power plants and the ENSI were asked for information about the daily amount of radioactivity produced and the total existent radioactivity levels in each of the respective nuclear power plants. At the same time the nuclear power plants and the ENSI were asked to disclose these levels of radioactivity in comparison with the radioactivity released by the Hiroshima nuclear bomb. The resulting correspondence is impressive.3)..7)

Despite registered letters, the nuclear power plant Leibstadt did not reply to the first request. The response from the nuclear power plants Beznau (AXPO), Mühleberg (BKW) and Gösgen (ALPIQ) were evasive and failed to address the questions. They only referred to internet sites and publications by the Federal Office for Energy (BFE), the Federal Office of Public Health (BAG), the National Emergency Operations Centre (NAZ) and the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). All nuclear power plants were contacted again.
 

1) cf. JAPAN nuclear catastrophe: UN Resolution on Security and energy needed urgently!, SolarPeace.org, 18.3.2011

cf. The Catastrophe of Fukushima, Video speech by the physician, author and speaker Dr Helen Caldicott, 15.5.2011

cf. Internal Radioactive Emitters – Invisible, Tasteless, and Odorless, Dr Helen Caldicott, 14.7.2011

cf. Radioactive contamination in Fukushima: "Food is nuclear waste", video of a ZDF-Frontal21 broadcast in Japan, Fukushima Central Television, 28.8.2011; cf. the original broadcast: The consequences of Fukushima, ZDF, 9.8.2011 


Swiss nuclear power plant locations
 

The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) is the "Federal regulatory authority for nuclear safety of the Swiss nuclear power plants".2)

When asked the same questions about radioactivity in the nuclear power plants, the ENSI replied, that the duties of the ENSI include the «supervision of the safety of the Swiss nuclear facilities» and the «potentially releasable radioactivity», but not the «produced and accumulated radioactivity» as requested. They suggested «please contact the operators of the nuclear power plants directly».

Additionally the ENSI confirmed that the data on radioactivity in nuclear power plants and the comparison with the Hiroshima nuclear bomb on the website SolarPeace.org are correct and stated: «In this respect, your questions are answered on your linked website». Thanks - But how can a regulatory body assess the risk and safety of nuclear power plants without knowing the amount of radioactivity produced, thus without knowing the cause of the risk of nuclear power plants? A reply from ENSI to the second letter dated 1.7.2011 is still pending.3)

2) cf. Mandate of Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), inauguration of ENSI, 30.4.2009

cf. «Openness and Transparency», ENSI Direktor Hans Wanner, 6.6.2011

cf. «Arbitrariness ("severe perversion of the course of justice") by the ENSI must be stopped», Greenpeace und Prof. Dr. iur. Heribert Rausch, 28.8.2011

 

3) cf. correspondence with Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI, SolarPeace.org, 1.4.2011 to 1.7.2011 (einschl. Mitteilung der Umfrageergebnisse vom 31.8.2011 und der später nachgefragten Antwort des ENSI vom 12.6.2012)

see also The ENSI acts as if it would do something, "Energy expert Rudolf Rechsteiner explains how systematically the nuclear power plant operators are being protected instead of the population.", TRAS, 28.11.2013 and "Rudolf Rechsteiner wants to legally enforce retrofits that become too expensive for the operators of nuclear power plants", TRAS, 5.12.2013

 

 


© Atominfomedia, 31.5.2011 (So blöfft die Atomwirtschaft)

The nuclear power plant Beznau (AXPO) replied to the second inquiry on radioactivity in the nuclear power plant again with an evasive «This cannot be answered» and stated that regarding the required comparison with the amount of radioactivity released by the Hiroshima nuclear bomb, «We wish to inform you that we are not involved in nuclear weapons nor do we have any detailed knowledge about this. We want to emphasise, however, that .. a meaningful quantitative comparison is neither possible nor effective». Why does the AXPO claim that the questions regarding the produced radioactivity cannot be answered and that the comparison with the Hiroshima nuclear bomb is not possible? A reply from the nuclear power plant Beznau (AXPO) to the third letter dated 14.8.2011 is still pending.4)

4) cf. correspondence with nuclear power plant Beznau (AXPO), SolarPeace.org, 1.4.2011 to 14.8.2011


©
moritzleuenberger.net

The nuclear power plant Leibstadt replied to the second registered letter, however with a literal copy of the response from the nuclear power plant Beznau (AXPO). This, despite the fact that Leibstadt produces about three times as much radioactivity due to its gross electrical output of 1220 MW (Beznau 380 MW). A reply from the nuclear power plant Leibstadt to the third letter dated 20.7.2011 is still pending.5)

5) cf. correspondence with nuclear power plant Leibstadt, SolarPeace.org, 1.4.2011 to 20.7.2011


© Atominfomedia, 15.11.2011 (Fukushima-Reaktoren in Europa) and 3.7.2011 (Mühleberg schon lange unsicher)

The nuclear power plant Mühleberg (BKW) responded to the second inquiry with general statements about radioactivity and various units (becquerel, electron-volts, sievert), but failed to communicate details using these units. BKW described the comparison with the Hiroshima nuclear bomb as «questionable» and stated that production is «about 1 kg of fissionable products per day» and «At its core is an average of about 1 ton of radioactive atomic nucleus», which however according to BKW «says nothing about the energy of the radiation and the potential danger for men and nature». In a third letter BKW was reminded of the missing information (e.g. in becquerel) and asked to answer all questions. Hereupon the BKW replied succinctly, «We have provided the information available». A reply from BKW to the fourth letter dated 1.6.2011 is still pending.6)

6) cf. correspondence with nuclear power plant Mühleberg (BKW), SolarPeace.org, 21.3.2011 to 1.6.2011

 

Note:

cf. Hiroshima-Atombombe (Little Boy): fissionable products 64 kg Uran, Internationale Ärzte für die Verhütung des Atomkrieges, Ärzte in sozialer Verantwortung e.V. IPPNW (Friedensnobelpreis 1985)


© Atominfomedia, 27.7.2011 (CH-AKW als Anschlagziel)

The nuclear power plant Gösgen (ALPIQ) replied to the second inquiry on produced radioactivity with «daily 3.3 kg of radioactive fission products» (see the gross output: Gösgen 1035 MW, Mühleberg 390 MW), «during operation, the entire inventory amounts to approximately 8E8 TBq, if the reactor is shut down it is in a percentage level thereof» and explained that a comparison with the radioactivity of the Hiroshima nuclear bomb is «not possible». As this response says little (see the explanation of BKW), is difficult to understand and impossible to compare for lay people, they were asked for a response to all questions and for an explanation of «inventory .. 8E8 TBq» (see: 8E8 TBq = 800'000'000'000'000'000'000 Bq = 800 trillion becquerel). Hereupon the nuclear power plant Gösgen (ALPIQ) replied only, «For further clarification of your questions, we recommend .. the consultation of relevant specialist literature». A reply from the nuclear power plant Gösgen to the fourth letter dated 14.8.2011 is still pending.7)

7) cf. correspondence with nuclear power plant Gösgen (ALPIQ), SolarPeace.org, 1.4.2011 to 14.8.2011

 

Notes:

 8E8 = 8 x 108 = 800'000'000

 T = Tera = 1012 = 1.000.000.000.000 = Billion

●  E = Exa = 1018 = 1.000.000.000.000.000.000 = Trillion

cf. Vorsätze für Maßeinheiten (SI-Präfixe), Wikipedia.org

cf. Becquerel (Bq), the unit of Radioactivity, Wikipedia.org

Result

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© Prof. Dr. Richard L. Garwin (Atomphysiker) 8)

«A reactor in one day produces as much radioactivity as a 50-kt nuclear explosion.»8)

 

«The quantity of radioactivity, which is present in a reactor, is larger than the quantity of radioactivity spread by a nuclear bomb - significantly larger.»

Prof. Dr. C. F. von Weizsäcker, nuclear physicist, cf. Atomkraftwerke und Jod-Tabletten: "Risiken und Nebenwirkungen ...", SolarPeace.org, 12.11.2004, and the «Packungsbeilage Atomstrom...»

 

 

 

 

Change your electricity!!

Order at your electricity supplier a natural power / green energy, which also includes a portion of solar power...

 

 

 

The result of the survey based on the responses received is sobering.  

a)  No Swiss nuclear power plant knows how much radioactivity is produced per day.

b)  Only the nuclear power plant Gösgen (ALPIQ) was able to state the total radioactivity present, but refused further explanation.

c)  No nuclear power plant could give understandable and meaningful information regarding the produced radioactivity and the comparison with the Hiroshima nuclear bomb.

Conclusion:  Nuclear power plant operators who do not know «what» and «how much» they produce, cannot assess the risk and therefore cannot take adequate safety precautions. Since even the Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) has stated that they do not know the radioactivity in the Swiss nuclear power plants (and thus cannot fulfill their mandate), the Swiss Federal Council (Bundesrat) is responsible for checking, whether these nuclear power plants must immediately be taken off the grid for safety reasons.

It is high time that we are fully aware of the core question and the core problem:
 

What does a nuclear power plant produce?

     1.)    Radioactivity

     2.)    Electricity

 
Already in April 2001, the U.S. nuclear physicists Richard L. Garwin explained the amount of radioactivity in a nuclear power plant at the Nuclear Control Institute in Washington: «Since a reactor in one day produces as much radioactivity as a 50-kt nuclear explosion, and fuel in a reactor has typically been there for an average of two years, a typical nuclear reactor has in its core the long-lived radioisotopes from 30 megatons of fission.» (Richard L. Garwin, «Can the World Do Without Nuclear Power? Can the World Live With Nuclear Power?», Nuclear Control Institute, 9.4.2001).8)

The Hiroshima nuclear bomb represented a 12.5 kt nuclear explosion. Thus, an average nuclear power plant produces a daily quantity of radioactivity equivalent to four Hiroshima nuclear bombs, which each year adds up to radioactivity in the order of magnitude of 1460 Hiroshima nuclear bombs. In a nuclear reactor radioactivity exists even in the order of magnitude of 2920 Hiroshima nuclear bombs (the production of two years). Thus the five Swiss nuclear power plants contain radioactivity in an order of magnitude of approximately 10’000 Hiroshima nuclear bombs and threaten not only the Swiss population, but also the population of neighbouring countries. This is a violation of constitutional principles, human rights and international law.
10)

US nuclear physicist Richard L. Garwin summarises: «Reactor accidents... too horrible to think about.», by which he is sadly not only right but also appeals to the need for responsible reflection by political decision makers.8) 

After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima the Swiss Federal Council and the National Council have made a policy decision to phase out nuclear power. The Council of States must still confirm this policy decision to enable design and implementation of the energy transition now without further delay.11)

This decision is about the security of the population, but it is also about the issues of electricity price and security of supply. These questions can best be answered by the people of Fukushima and Japan.1) and 12)  

As Bloomberg reported, the Japanese billionaire Masayoshi Son together with Japan's government is planning to replace two-thirds of today's nuclear electricity with solar power (incl. «roof-top solar panels at 10 million homes»). This is possible in Switzerland too.13)

 

 

«To see the problem is more important than finding the solution,

for accurate representation of the problem leads almost automatically to the correct solution.»


(Albert Einstein)

 

8) cf. «Can the World Do Without Nuclear Power? Can the World Live With Nuclear Power?», Prof. Dr. Richard L. Garwin (nuclear physicist), Nuclear Control Institute, 9.4.2001 (cf. copy page 5 and copy page 6 )

see also Fukushima - Nuclear explosion by Super-GAU? , SolarPeace.org, 11.3.2012, summary (2 pages) of the TV documentation Fukushima - The truth behind the Super-GAU, TV ARTE, 6.3.2012 (52min video in German or French), «People are burdened with doses that are much higher than during the time of testing nuclear bombs ... 1000-times higher in the one-hundred-km zone.», Prof. Christopher Busby, radiation chemist; «It can not be excluded that there has been a nuclear explosion in reactor 3.», Prof. Yukio Yamaguchi, Director Citicens' Nuclear Information Center, Tokyo

see also «The spent fuel from nuclear plants contains enough plutonium to fabricate about 30 nuclear weapons from a single year of operation of each power reactor.», Prof. Dr. Richard L. Garwin (nuclear physicist), «The Future of Nuclear Energy,», Chicago, 25./26.9.2008 (Copy )

 

9) cf. Hiroshima nuclear bomb à 12.5 kt (Copy ), International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW, Peace Nobel Price 1985, www.facts-on-nuclear-energy.info)

 

10) cf. «UN Declaration of Human Rights should be applied to the question of avoidable radiation exposures», ECRR 2003 - Recommendations of the European Committee on Radiation Risk, Brussels 2003

cf. Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft, «Präambel: Im Namen Gottes des Allmächtigen ... Verantwortung gegenüber der Schöpfung ... Unabhängigkeit und Frieden ... Verantwortung gegenüber den künftigen Generationen ...», 18. April 1999 (Stand am 3. März 2013), admin.ch

cf. Gemeinderat Kilchberg informiert über Radioaktivität & Lösung Naturstrom... Legislaturziel: Erhaltung der Lebensgrundlagen, SolarPeace.org, 25.11.2008

cf. Antwort der Österreichischen Regierung zur SolarPeace-Pressemitteilung «Klimawandel durch Radioaktivität», Bundeskanzleramt Österreich, 7.10.2009

 

11) cf. Sessionsprogramme Ständerat, Herbstsession, 12. - 30. September 2011

cf. Schweiz: Bundesrat beschliesst Atomausstieg, admin.ch, 25.05.2011; «Profitieren kann die Schweiz auf allen Ebenen», Tagesanzeiger, 27.5.2011; «Wenn's einer schaffen kann, dann wir!», SF Arena, 28.5.2011; Das unerwartet deutliche JA zum Atomausstieg, NZZ, 8.6.2011

 

12) cf. Damages due to the nuclear disaster in Fukushima already at 90 to 100 billion Euro, Sonnenseite.com, 8.8.2011 and Fukushima-operator makes billion-dollar loss, Spiegel Online, 9.8.2011

cf. Fukushima Study on Liability Issues: «Generally unlimited liability of nuclear plant operator TEPCO» and «Is the Japanese government liable due to lack of nuclear supervision?», Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e.V., 19.8.2011  (Kopie )

cf. 4300 billion Swiss Francs cost of risk by nuclear energy in the study "Verbesserte Deckung des Nuklearrisikos - zu welchen Bedingungen?", Bundesamt für Energie (Dezember 2000)

cf. Atommeiler nicht versicherbar and Munich RE-Chef Von Bomhard in Schäden durch Super-GAU lassen sich kaum absichern, WELT ONLINE, 20.3.2011 und auch Nuclear Expensive and Uninsurable (with insurance up to $3.40/kWh), Sonnenseite.com 2011

cf. "Die AKW Begeisterung steckt tief im Kühlturm" (Atomstrom 3 CHF/kWh) , 3.3.2000, CASH; and the study quoted therein "Privatisierung der KKW-Haftung in der BRD", Gutachten der Regierung Kohl (CDU/CSU/FDP), Sept. 1992; and Atomstrom würde 5 CHF/kWh kosten ..., "Atompläne: Unverantwortlich und kurzsichtig", Greenpeace, 24.5.2005

 

13) cf. Japan’s Richest Man Takes on Atomic Future With Solar Plans, Bloomberg, 15.6.2011 and Solarrevolution auf Japanisch, Solarmedia, 16.6.2011 and Saudi-Arabien: Weltgrößte Solaranlage, Sonnenseite.com, 30.03.2018

cf. "...realisierbares Potential von 30 bis 50%.", HAUS TECH Nr. 11, 2004, Handelszeitung Fachverlag; and "Gemäss einer EU-Studie könnte 2010 mehr als ein Viertel des schweizerischen Stromverbrauchs auf Dächern produziert werden - mit Photovoltaik-Anlagen" (18.6.1997) and 20% Solarstrom (PV) des  heutigen Stroverbrauchs , Greenpeace, 12.5.2011; see also AEE - Agentur für erneuerbare Energien und Energieeffizienz: "ein Drittel des heutigen Strombedarfs" (Energie von der Sonne), 2011

cf. China : government incentive delivers massive upside to Solar market, Sonnenseite.com, 16.8.2011

cf. «Natural Power – Lifestyle and Necessity», SolarPeace.org, 2.5.2008

cf. 'At the floodgates' of a solar energy boom, "Solar energy, together with wind power, can potentially tackle the task of transforming the global energy system...", Eicke Weber, director at Fraunhofer Institute, 29.12.2013

PS ...

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Please tell others ...

P.S. About 3000 persons, politicians and decision makers world-wide receive the SolarPeace-Information. All emails and letters are created with so-called 'Natural Power', clean electricity generated with 100% renewable energies (sun, water, wind, biomass or geothermal). Increasing demand creates investments and the necessary supply. Each order for 'Natural Power' supports the build-up of a future-oriented energy supply and is an effective contribution to climate protection.

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Cordial thanks!


 

PDF-print versions for passing on  ...

UN-Resolution «Climate Change by Radioactivity»

Survey shows: Swiss nuclear power plants don't know what they are doing!

Natural Power – Lifestyle and Necessity

Showcase: "U.S. Mission Solar Energy Project" (German)

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